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Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle developmentThis document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.
Document ID
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Anderson, B. Jeffrey
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Smith, Robert E.
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Date Acquired
September 6, 2013
Publication Date
June 1, 1994
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
NAS 1.15:4527
Accession Number
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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