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Airborne Hyperspectral Sensing of Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes Region: System Calibration and Validation
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Author and Affiliation:
Lekki, John(NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, United States)
Anderson, Robert(NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, United States)
Avouris, Dulcinea(Kent State Univ., OH, United States)
Becker, RIchard(Toledo Univ., Toledo, OH, United States)
Churnside, James(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth Systems Research, Boulder, CO, United States)
Cline, Michael(Toledo Univ., Toledo, OH, United States)
Demers, James(NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, United States)
Leshkevich, George(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Arbor, MI, United States)
Liou, Larry(NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, United States)
Luvall, Jeffrey(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, United States) Show more authors
Abstract: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie have been prominent in recent years. The bloom in 2014 reached a severe level causing the State of Ohio to declare a state of emergency. At that time NASA Glenn Research Center was requested by stakeholders to help monitor the blooms in Lake Erie. Glenn conducted flights twice a week in August and September and assembled and distributed the HAB information to the shoreline water resource managers using its hyperspectral imaging sensor (in development since 2006), the S??3 Viking aircraft, and funding resources from the NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division. Since then, the State of Ohio, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have elevated their funding and activities for observing, monitoring, and addressing the root cause of HABs. Also, the communities and stakeholders have persistently requested NASA Glenn??s participation in HAB observation. Abundant field campaigns and sample analyses have been funded by Ohio and NOAA, which provided a great opportunity for NASA to advance science and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing economically. Capitalizing on this opportunity to advance the science of algal blooms and remote sensing, NASA Glenn conducted the Airborne Hyperspectral Observation of harmful algal blooms campaign in 2015 that was, in many respects, twice as large as the 2014 campaign. Focusing mostly on Lake Erie, but also including other small inland lakes and the Ohio River, the campaign was conducted in partnership with a large number of partners specializing in marine science and remote sensing. Airborne hyperspectral observation of HABs holds promise to distinguish potential HABs from nuisance blooms, determine their concentrations, and delineate their movement in an augmented spatial and temporal resolution and under clouds??all of which are excellent complements to satellite observations. Working with collaborators at several Ohio and Michigan institutions as well as one in South Dakota and one in Alabama, this effort was able to provide next-day georeferenced estimates of cyanobacteria and scum concentrations. Very prompt processing and analysis of the hyperspectral imagery is necessary for the information to be acted upon. For example, a next-day report of an overflight over the Ohio River indicated that a bloom could be present as far downstream as the Cincinnati intake, but the Ohio EPA had not received visual reports of a bloom that far downstream. Water samples were obtained at the Cincinnati water intake, based on the flight data, and detected microcystins in the source water. The flight data helped State and municipal authorities realize the potential extent of that bloom, and triggered response sampling, before the visual river-wide scums started forming. The present document describes the process that was utilized to take raw remote sensing data and create information products; this includes system calibration and validation, efforts to correct atmospheric effects, and algorithms that produce the data products. Furthermore, successful research into improved algorithms for expanding the capability to delineate in water constituents is included. Finally, comparisons that show expected relationships between ground-based measurements and hyperspectral imager version 2 (HSI2) data results are presented, giving confidence in the remote sensing products.
Publication Date: Feb 01, 2017
Document ID:
(Acquired Mar 17, 2017)
Report/Patent Number: NASA/TM-2017-219071, E-19202, GRC-E-DAA-TN29647
Document Type: Technical Report
Contract/Grant/Task Num: WBS 281945.
Financial Sponsor: NASA Glenn Research Center; Cleveland, OH United States
Organization Source: NASA Glenn Research Center; Cleveland, OH United States
Description: 78p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright; Distribution as joint owner in the copyright
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Last Modified: March 17, 2017
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